Other spine disorders commonly encountered by FOCOS include spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis, kyphoscoliosis, tuberculous spondylitis, and post traumatic deformities.

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Spondylolisthesis is a forward slippage of the vertebra.  It is frequently due to a developmental defect or the result of a fracture.  Typical symptoms of spondylolisthesis include back pain and/or leg pain.

Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal which surrounds the spinal cord.  Stenosis can be caused by age related degeneration, trauma, or in rarer instances, infection or birth defect.

Kyphoscoliosis is a combination of kyphosis and scoliosis.  It describes an abnormal curvature of the spine in both the coronal and sagittal plane. Kyphoscoliosis is a musculoskeletal disorder causing chronic under ventilation of the lungs and may be one of the major causes of pulmonary hypertension.

Tuberculous Spondylitis (Pott’s Disease) is caused by a tuberculosis bacillus infection in the spine.   It is characterized by the softening and collapse of vertebrae, often resulting in severe localized kyphosis.  It is rare in the developed world but still exists in underserved countries such as Sierra Leone and India.

Post-traumatic deformities can be caused by a wide variety of accidents and traumatic injuries. Most commonly, post traumatic deformities result from malunion fracture. Over time these injuries heal improperly, become more exaggerated, and result in further complications.