Complex spine deformities include severe scoliosis and kyphosis.  


Scoliosis is a lateral (left to right) curvature of the spine. Scoliosis is diagnosed as one of three types: Idiopathic, in which the origin is unknown; Congenital, in which the bones are asymmetrical at birth; or Neuromuscular which stems from nerve and/ or muscle disorders such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or poliomyelitis.

Kyphosis is a sagittal (front to back) curvature of the spine.  Kyphosis of the upper spine is normal.  However, excessive kyphosis caused by developmental problems, infection, trauma, or degenerative diseases is not normal.  

For most of these neglected deformities, the cause is unknown and adds more burden to the classification and selection of appropriate treatment.  However, an in depth clinical and radiographic evaluation allows expert surgeons managing these cases to prescribe complex reconstructive treatment modalities with successful outcomes.